Feline spraying has to be differentiated from peeing outside of the litter box. It should not be confused with a lapse in toilet training.
Spraying usually takes place at ankle height, which distinguishes it from a litter pan problem. Cat spraying is when they back up to a surface, and tail twitching, mark the surface with their urine. When a cat is urinating outside of the litter box, the cat will squat to urinate on a horizontal surface. Inappropriate peeing is not the same as cat spraying.
Cat spraying is also more usual among male cats than it is among female cats. Non-neutered cats are more likely to spray than are neutered cats. Cat spraying can also happen when a cat is stressed, anxious or territorial. Male and female cats that are not neutered mark their territory as a way of calling another cat.
Urine spraying is a standard, innate territory-claiming behavior that has nothing to do with your cat’s hygiene. Though both male and female cats will spray, the behavior is most common in non-neutered males, and in multi-cat households. Urine marking is a communication system for cats. Cat urine has pheromones which are chemical compounds that tell other cats certain messages. Do not confuse spraying with behavior that might indicate urinary infections and digestive problems that cause uncontrolled peeing.
Neutering or spaying a kitten when young can prevent spraying problems down the road. Your vet will tell you on the best time to spay your kitten.
Stress is another trigger for cat spraying. To reduce this stress, maintain a home routine, feeding your cat at the same time each day and keeping his bowls and litter boxes in the same location. Stress can also be a reason for cat urine problems starting up. Cats can get stressed for many.
Clean sprayed places thoroughly with an enzymatic cleaner. What will not work is punishing your cat after the fact.
Cleaning the area with an enzymatic cleaner so the cat is not attracted back to the same site helps. Placing plastic or aluminum foil over the area, if you can, can be very helpful. Cleaning alone does little to reduce spraying. Cats that mark in one or two particular areas may cease if the function of the area is changed.